Female Health Problems

Uterine fibroid

A uterine fibroid is the most common non cancerous tumor which is present in the uterus of women, also called fibromyoma, leiomyoma or myoma.

Fibroids basically start in the muscle tissues of the uterus and can grow single or in cluster. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is not known but their growth is associated with hormone estrogen.


  • Hormones – Hormones like estrogen and progesterone are also supposed to be the cause of uterine fibroids.
  • Genetic inheritance - Genes play an important role in the formation of uterine fibroids and women can inherit it from their family.


  • Subserosal fibroids - These fibroids develop in the outer portion or the outside wall of the uterus.
  • Intramural fibroids – These fibroids develop within the wall of the uterus.
  • Pedunculated fibroids- These grow on a small stalk that connects them to the inner or outer wall of the uterus.
  • Submucosal fibroids - These fibroids are present partially in the uterine cavity and partially in the uterine wall, just under the lining of the uterine cavity. These cause heavy menstrual bleeding.

Symptoms - Most of the uterine fibroids remain asymptomatic but they can grow and result in different symptoms. Following are a few symptoms associated with fibroid.

  • Backache
  • Excessive weakness
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blood clots with bleeding
  • Pain or heaviness in lower abdomen
  • Irregular, heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding

Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian cysts are small sacs (also called follicles) filled with fluid present inside the ovary. Most of the ovarian cysts are asymptomatic but some may cause health problems.


Functional ovarian cyst – This is the most common type of ovarian cyst and occurs in the normal menstrual cycle of the female. It forms during ovulation, when either the egg is not released or the sac in which the egg forms, does not dissolve after the egg is released.

Pathological cyst - These cysts are a result of abnormal cell growth and are less common. Most of them are harmless or benign in nature, they are rarely malignant.


  • Lower abdomen pain, sometimes with swelling
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Fullness sensation in the lower abdomen
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Lower abdomen pain after heavy exercise
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Pain with urination or passage of stools
  • Nausea, vomiting along with pain
  • Ovarian cyst can also lead to infertility

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Poly Cystic Ovarian syndrome is the set of symptoms which occur when multiple fluid filled sacs present in the ovary start causing hormonal imbalance in the body. One can have polycystic ovaries without having polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) but, nearly all women with polycystic ovarian syndrome will have polycystic ovaries.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the common hormonal disorder which occurs in women during their reproductive years and one of the leading causes of infertility.


  • Multiple ovarian cysts
  • Irregular, delayed  or sometimes absent menses
  • Obesity
  • Disturbed immune system
  • Hyper pigmentation of skin folds
  • Acne with oily skin
  • Excessive body or facial hair
  • Thinning of hair
  • Infertility
  • Miscarriage
  • High blood pressure
  • Disturbed appetite
  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • Mood disorders leading to anxiety or depression


Leucorrhoea is the whitish discharge from the female genitals. Leucorrhoea is an unhealthy condition of the reproductive organs of women, caused by the presence of infection. If may become chronic if not treated properly in the initial stages. Mental stress can also lead to leucorrhoea.


Following are the symptoms which patient feels when whitish discharge is there.

  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Irritability
  • Pain in lower back
  • Intense itching of the genitals
  • Dragging pain in the lower abdomen

Menstrual problems

Many women have problems in their menstrual cycle, these problems can occur for the first time when they start to menstruate or can have these problems later in life.

Menstrual cycle and its problemsmay vary from woman to woman. In each cycle, some women have menstrual bleeding for three days and some for seven days and the cycle also varies in duration from 25 days to longer.


Amenorrhea – It may be primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhea is the condition when girl does not get her periods by age of 16. Secondary amenorrhea means woman’s regular periods stop at any age for 3 consecutive months.


  • Hormonal irregularities
  • Severe illness
  • Stress
  • Sudden change in weight
  • Bad eating habits
  • Extreme exercise
  • Certain medications

Metrorrhagia and MenorrhagiaMetrorrhagia is the appearance of bleeding or spotting, at irregular intervals, especially between the expected menstrual periods. Menorrhagia is the condition in which menstruation remains at regular interval but with excessive flow. These two conditions also called as dysfunctional uterine bleeding.


  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Uterine Fibroids
  • Endometrial tissue overgrowth
  • Cancer

Dysmenorrhea – This term refers to excessive abdominal pain during periods. This pain may be accompanied by some other symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting etc.


Dysmenorrhea is caused by  prostaglandins, which is the normal chemical substance which contracts the uterus. This uterine contraction deprives the uterine muscle from oxygen and leads to painful cramping.  This is called primary dysmenorrhea.

But if the cramping pain is caused by some disease like uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease etc. then it is called secondary dysmenorrhea.  In this case, pain will also occur at other times when menses are not there and during intercourse.

Premenstrual Stress (PMS)

Premenstrual Stress refers to a group of symptoms that women may feel up to 14 days before the period.


  • Mood swing
  • Anxiety
  • Tiredness
  • Breast heaviness
  • Hot flushes
  • Anger
  • Acne
  • Appetite changes

Menopausal problems

Menopause refers to the time when a woman stops having menstrual periods. Many women feel different type of symptoms as a result of the hormonal changes taking place during this phase. The common age at which women experience menopause is 48 - 55 years.


  • Hot flashes
  • Urinary Infection
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Breast changes
  • Weakness of bones
  • High Cholesterol level
  • Weight gain

Breast lumps / Fibroadenoma

Breast lumps are breast tumors which can be benign (non- cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) but 80-85% of all breast lumps are benign, especially in women under age 40.


  • Cancer
  • Severe infections or breast abscess
  • Some sort of trauma or injury
  • Non-cancerous growths like fibroadenoma or breast cysts


  • Painless lump in the breast
  • Lump in armpit
  • Inflammation of the breast skin
  • Difference in breast size, shape and colour
  • Nipple changes
  • Discharge from nipple
  • Orange peel appearance of the breast
  • Weight loss