Bone and Joint Problems


Osteoporosis is the thinning or the loss of bone tissue over the time that results in bone fragility. Women are four times more likely to develop this problem than men.

Osteoporosis is also called the "silent disease" because the person having osteoporosis may not be aware of this disease until bones become so weak that the bones fracture from a slight strain or fall.


  • Lack of hormones, particularly estrogen in women and androgen in men can lead to osteoporosis. Women have more risk for osteoporosis after menopause because it is accompanied by lower estrogen levels
  • Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D
  • Eating disorders
  • Long-term physical inactivity
  • Thyroid problems
  • Use of certain medications
  • Bone cancer
  • Hereditary factors
  • Age – Bone mass decreases with increasing age
  • Certain disease like gastric cancer, HIV, Breast cancer etc. also increase the risk of osteoporosis


  • Bone pain
  • No symptoms in the early stages
  • Bone fractures easily from a strain or fall
  • Pain in lower back and neck due to fractures of the spinal bones
  • Collapsed backbone also results in stooped posture, loss of height


Arthritis simply means inflammation of one or more joints. Arthritis may occur in men or women. Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the most common types of arthritis.


  • Injury
  • Metabolic abnormalities such as gout
  • Hereditary factors
  • Infections
  • Autoimmunity


In osteoarthritis, breakdown of cartilage occurs, which is part of a joint and cushions the ends of the bones and allows easy movement. It is basically the wear-and-tear form of arthritis that occurs with age and commonly found in the larger weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees.


  • Pain and swelling in the joint
  • Reduced movement of the joint with stiffness
  • Crunching sound of bone rubbing when the joint is used

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune disease where the immune system of the body itself attacks normal joint tissues, causing inflammation of the joint lining.
It is a chronic disease with periods of pain and swelling of the joints, alternating with the periods of remission when pain and inflammation disappear. Rheumatoid arthritis affects many joints especially small joint like hands, wrists, fingers etc. and also results in the deterioration of the shape of the joints.


  • Joint pain and stiffness
  • Redness of the skin around a joint
  • Both sides of the body are usually affected at the same time that leads to the symmetrical pattern of inflammation.
  • Stiffness after a long rest or in the morning
  • Rheumatoid nodules
  • Fatigue
  • Occasionally fever

Cervical spondylitis

Cervical spondylitis also called ‘Neck Pain’, is an inflammation of the space between the vertebras of the neck.  Neck pain is the most common problem that one encounters in day to day life. 


  • Smoking
  • Old people
  • Genetic causes
  • Repeated trauma to the neck region
  • Abnormal or wrong position of neck while watching TV or while performing any other activity.
  • A few professions which demand constant exertion of the neck like computer professionals, travelers, drivers, telephone operators etc.


  • Giddiness
  • Weakness of the arms
  • Neck pain may radiate to the arms or shoulder
  • Headache, particularly in the back of the head
  • Morning neck stiffness that progressively worsens


Backache is a common complaint which affects all age ranges. It is a condition that usually occurs when one or more structures of the back get affected like muscles, cartilage, bones or spinal cord.


  • Injury to the muscles, bones, or nerves of the spine leads to back pain
  • Spinal stenosis causes back pain as with age, spinal canal becomes constricted.
  • Arthritis can also affect small joint of the spine leading to the backache.
  • A ruptured intervertebral disc is another common cause of back pain.
  • Spondylitis can cause stiffness and pain in the spine.
  • Tumors can also be a source of skeletal pain.
  • Osteoporosis can cause pain and discomfort of the lower back. Back pain from osteoporosis is most commonly related to compression fractures of the vertebra because of weak bones.


  • The pain usually gets worse on movement.
  • Pain is sometimes accompanied by numbness in the back or leg.
  • Change in the body posture may occur because of this back pain.
  • Limitation in movement of the spine - especially bending forward and leaning back.
  • Lower backache that sometimes radiates into the buttocks, the back of the thigh or to the groin.